Arthur Napoleão dos Santos (1843-1925) was a Portuguese composer, pianist, instrument dealer and music publisher. He was born in Oporto, Portugal, and gave his first piano concert at the age of 7. When he was 8, supported by King Ferdinand II of Portugal, Napoleão gave his first international concerts, visiting cities such as London (where he played at the Portuguese Embassy in the city) and Paris. Thereafter he toured all over Europe and America, sometimes playing duets with Henri Vieuxtemps or Henryk Wieniawski. In 1866 he settled in Brazil, living in Rio de Janeiro. Here he set up a shop to sell instruments and publish sheet music. He taught piano. He is the Patron of Chair 18 of the Brazilian Academy of Music.